Reducing inequalities and ensuring no one is left behind are integral to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. 

Inequality within and among countries is a persistent cause for concern. Despite some positive signs toward reducing inequality in some dimensions, such as reducing relative income inequality in some countries and preferential trade status benefiting lower-income countries, inequality still persists.

COVID-19 has deepened existing inequalities, hitting the poorest and most vulnerable communities the hardest. It has put a spotlight on economic inequalities and fragile social safety nets that leave vulnerable communities to bear the brunt of the crisis.  At the same time, social, political and economic inequalities have amplified the impacts of the pandemic.

On the economic front, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased global unemployment and dramatically slashed workers’ incomes.

COVID-19 also puts at risk the limited progress that has been made on gender equality and women’s rights over the past decades. Across every sphere, from health to the economy, security to social protection, the impacts of COVID-19 are exacerbated for women and girls simply by virtue of their sex.

Inequalities are also deepening for vulnerable populations in countries with weaker health systems and those facing existing humanitarian crises. Refugees and migrants, as well as indigenous peoples, older persons, people with disabilities and children are particularly at risk of being left behind. And hate speech targeting vulnerable groups is rising.

TARGETS 

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
 
10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
 
10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
 
10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
 
10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
 
10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
 
10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
 
10.A Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
 
10.B Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
 
10.C By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

INDICATORS 

10.1.1 Growth rates of household expenditure or income per capita among the bottom 40 per cent of the population and the total population
 
10.2.1 Proportion of people living below 50 per cent of median income, by age, sex and persons with disabilities
 
10.3.1 Proportion of the population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed within the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law
 
10.4.1 Labour share of GDP, comprising wages and social protection transfers
 
10.5.1 Financial Soundness Indicators
 
10.6.1 Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations
 
10.7.1 Recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of yearly income earned in country of destination
10.7.2 Number of countries that have implemented well-managed migration policies
 
10.A.1 Proportion of tariff lines applied to imports from least developed countries and developing countries with zero-tariff
 
10.B.1 Total resource flows for development, by recipient and donor countries and type of flow (e.g. official development assistance, foreign direct investment and other flows)
 
10.C.1 Remittance costs as a proportion of the amount remitted